RICE BY PRODUCTS AND INDUSTRIAL USE
Rice-flour products: Rice flour does not contain gluten and therefore its dough cannot retain gases during baking as wheat flour does. Rice flour is widely used in making baby foods, breakfast cereals, unbaked biscuits, snack foods, pancakes, and waffles.
yuan zi is a popular food in China. It is made from glutinous rice flour and water by adding sweet or savoury fillings to the rice dough. Its quality preparation depends on the amylopectin content, the flour particle size, and the recipe for the fillings.
Rice bread is a good substitute for other gluten-containing cereal flour, as some people are allergic to these flours. The medium-and short-grain rice varieties are preferable to the long-grain type for making rice bread.
Rice noodles: Rice noodles are often produced from non-glutinous rice by soaking, grinding, steaming, kneading, and drying. If dehydrated, it can be stored up to two years. In Thailand, mung bean is added to rice to make a special rice noodle called fung-shu (or tong-fun) that is more resistant to texture changes during reconstitution.
Rice snacks: have an attractive taste, flavour, texture, and aroma. They are often made from glutinous rice because of its sticky characteristics and easy expansion into a porous texture. However, non-glutinous rice also can be used for making some rice snacks.
The rice cracker is a typical rice snack. The Japanese soft rice cracker made from glutinous rice is called arare or okaki in comparison with the less popular and tougher senbei (rice cracker made from non-glutinous rice). The production process involves washing, grinding, steaming, kneading, cooling, pounding, drying, baking, seasoning, cutting, and packing. The production of rice crackers is now developed as a continual process that takes place within 3–4 hours. To add flavours and colour to rice crackers, ingredients often added: seaweed, sesame, red peppers, sugar, food pigments, and spices. Moreover, high-quality, refined oil should be used for oil-fried crackers.
Rice fries can even compete with the French fries made from potatoes because rice fries have a crisp exterior crust and fluffy interior. To make rice fries, rice should be fully cooked with butter, salt, and other seasonings.
Rice cakes: are popular in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. They can be made either from glutinous or non-glutinous rice by soaking and steaming. Before steaming, various ingredients can be added for more flavour, such as sugar, salt, monosodium glutamate, crushed radish, crushed mung bean (for lu du gao, a special cake in China), and crushed taro.
Glutinous or waxy rice is very sticky when cooked and is mainly consumed in northern Burma, northern Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. It is often used to make rice cakes. However, fermented rice cakes, such as fakau in China and Philippines, can also be made from non-glutinous rice.
Puffed rice cakes are popular in China and the United States because they are rich in taste, low in calories, and free from cholesterol. To make puffed rice cakes, some minor ingredients, such as sesame seed, millet, and salt, should be added to brown rice.
The Chinese rice cake zong zi, the same in Japan, is made from glutinous rice and soda ash, wrapped in bamboo leaves to form a tetrahedron, bound with string, and served with honey or sugar. Other ingredients include mushrooms, soy sauce, monosodium glutamate, sugar, black pepper, sherry wine, fried garlic, cooking oil, and shrimp meat.
Neng gao (mochi in Japanese) is also a special rice cake for the celebration of the Chinese Lunar New Year. It is produced either from glutinous rice or from non glutinous rice. The main production procedures involve soaking, steaming, kneading, and packing. For better taste and flavour, neng gao is sometimes sweetened with sugar or enriched with lard and cinnamon flour.
In Japan, sushi is a rice cake or roll or cube topped with raw fish or other delicacies and served with wasabi (Japanese horseradish). Fresh raw fish used in sushi include tuna, bonito, shrimp, squid, and shellfish. Vegetables such as cucumber and seasoning gourd also can be put in the middle of the rolls, which are then wrapped with seaweed (nori). Sushi usually is served with rice vinegar and soy sauce (shoyu).
Rice puddings: Rice can be made into creamy puddings by mixing cooked rice with milk and sugar.
Indian consumers sweeten rice pudding with palm sugar. Rice puddings were served to the rich during the time of the ancient Romans.
Quick-cooking rice: The preparation and cooking of conventional rice take about one hour. Now, quick-cooking rice product is popular in developed countries, such as Japan, the United States, and other Western countries. Completely precooked rice requires no further cooking. But it often requires 5 to 15 minutes for cooking. To produce quick-cooking rice, rice should be precooked by gelatinizing the rice starch in water and/or steam and then dried. Quick-cooking rice mainly is produced by the soak-boil-steam-dry, freeze-thaw-drying, expansion–pre-gelatinization, and gun puffing methods.
Canned and frozen rice: For convenience of consumption, they are produced in Japan, Korea, the United States, and other countries. After precooking, canned rice is sold by wet pack and dry pack. The preparation of frozen cooked rice includes soaking, draining, steaming, boiling, and freezing. To serve the frozen cooked rice, microwave heating is a common practice. Frozen rice also can be made into freeze-dried rice by sublimation under high vacuum. This rice has a long storage life of one to two years.
Rice breakfast cereals:
Some of them require cooking before eating, while others can be eaten directly. They commonly are fortified with minerals and heat-stable vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, and pyridoxine. The ready-to-eat breakfast cereals include oven-puffed, gun-puffed, extruded, and shredded rice. Oven-puffed rice is made from short-grain rice with sugar and salt by cooking, drying, tempering, enriching, and packaging. Gun puffing is a traditional method and is still practiced in some Asian countries, such as China. The procedure consists of heating, cooking with high pressure in a sealed chamber or gun, and suddenly releasing the high pressure. Because of the lack of continuity in processing, gun puffing is less popular in developed countries. Instead, making extruded rice has high and continuous production rates, great versatility in product shape, and ease of controlling product density. The production of extruded rice can be accomplished by extruding superheated and pressurized doughs. Shredded rice is produced by washing, cooking, drying, tempering, shredding, fortifying, and packing.
Baby foods: Rice has highly digestible energy, net protein utilization, and low crude fibre content. Therefore, it is suitable for baby food. Although baby foods can be in the form of rice flour or granulated rice, precooked infant rice cereal is the most common use of rice for baby food. The key to making this type of cereal is ensuring the ease of reconstitution with milk or formula without forming lumps. The starch is converted from crystalline to amorphous form by the addition of amylase, which breaks down starch into dextrin and oligosaccharides. Ingredients in this baby food include rice flour, rice polishings, sugar, dibasic calcium phosphate, glycerol monostearate (emulsifier), rice oil, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin or niacinamide. Sometimes, fruit is added to these precooked rice cereals.
Rice-bran products: Rice bran can be sprinkled on a dinner salad or used as a major ingredient of ready-to eat cereals, baked products, pasta, and other foods. Like oat bran, rice bran has high-quality protein, laxative properties, and dietary fibre components. Rice bran can lower serum cholesterol in humans and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and colon cancer. The bran also contains most of the vitamins in the rice kernel, including 78% of its thiamine, 47% of its riboflavin, and 67% of its niacin. The major carbohydrates in the rice bran are cellulose, hemicelluloses (or pentosans) and starch.
Rice bran has hydrolytic rancidity after milling. Therefore, the following treatments are necessary before it is processed as a food: indigenous lipase inactivation by parboiling, or moisture-added or dry extrusion, or other alternative methods.
Rice bran has 16–32% oil, including palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and other fatty acids. Therefore, rice bran can be processed into rice oil of the highest quality in terms of cooking quality, shelf life, and fatty acid composition. Oil extraction can be carried out with a variety of solvents using a hydraulic press or specially designed extractors before refining by de-waxing, degumming, neutralization, bleaching, winterization, and deodorization. After these steps, rice bran oil has greater stability than any other vegetable oil. Rice oil also can be used in cosmetics and paints.
Brewer's use: Rice alcohols include rice beer and rice wine, which is usually served at weddings and other annual rituals. Rice wine is distilled spirits having about 20% alcohol content. China has a long history of making rice wine, such as wang tsiu ("Shao Shing rice wine"). Nepal also has a slightly sweet rice wine called nigar. Other rice wines include tapuy in the Philippines, mukhuli in Korea, lao rong in Thailand, and moonshine rice wine and ba-xi de (a glutinous rice wine) in Vietnam.
In China, tian jiu is a popular mixture of rice grains, alcohol, lactic acid, and sugar. It is made from steamed glutinous rice.
Sake is a brewed alcoholic beverage having 14–16% alcohol content. The production of sake began in third century Japan. Sake is made from highly-polished rice, water, koje, and sake's yeast. Koje are microbes similar to those used in the production of cheese, shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soy bean paste). Sakamai or shinpakumai rice should be selected for sake production for better quality because of its high starch content and its large and soft grain. Another important ingredient is the spring water, which leads to rich flavour.